The almost continuous belts of coal beds, each one relating to specific geological
periods, denote the varying positions of palaeo-equators and confirm the hypothesised
land-mass configurations of my smaller Earth models. The various distributions of
fossils of insects and tetrapods (most notably dinosaurs) superimpose these palaeo-equatorial
belts with such confidence that it is possible to predict which range of fossils
would be found in any specific area of the world.
This work suggests that until at least a 100 million years ago, the Earth was predominantly
covered with ice - save for a narrow equatorial corridor within which most life was
confined. Birds, insects and some plants (eg. coniferous trees) are likely to have
been the first to adapt to the seasonal variations which existed beyond the confines
of these corridors. Monotremes, marsupials and true mammals may have also evolved
their basic characteristics in relation to these much colder conditions, beyond the
corridor, in order to exploit untapped resources. These pioneers probably lived an
underground existence, feeding on worms, during cold seasons, and this may explain
why the first mammals were relatively small creatures.
More recent palaeo-equatorial lines also have deposits of evaporites and these too
superimpose the fossil distribution lines for given geological periods.
The peripheral zones of these equatorial corridors and the extent to which glaciation
intruded them can be determined by the signatures left by glaciers. These are scrape
marks, till, drop-stones and terminal moraine.
Palaeo-magnetic data is yet another way of confirming these equatorial lines. This
data independently points to their associated polar positions.
An insight into the sequences of evolution are revealed in these studies on palaeo-equatorial
corridors. Evolution is powered predominantly by changes in environments. We can
come to understand how environments changed as these corridors have moved position
over time, and as the Earth got gradually warmer.
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