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Insect life


The fossils of early insects have been found in abundance and we can superimpose their distribution patterns upon those of the coal-bed areas with great accuracy. The first significant appearance of insects came in the late Carboniferous, round about 300 million years ago, but they had first evolved in the Devonian Period - some 100 million years earlier. By Early Carboniferous, 15 Orders of insects were represented in Euro-America (Brauckmann et al 1995).


Carboniferous Tetrapods


This was the era of the amphibian tetrapods - the Temnospondyli. They were salamander like animals, many with curious large flat heads - the significance of which is still not understood. Temnospondyls occurred in all areas along the Carboniferous Palaeoequator described above. Most notably in Spain (Puertollano Basin), Ireland - cochleosaurids - described by Seguira (1996), Scotland at the East Kirkton Site, West Lothian (Milner and Sequira 1994) and Nova Scotia. Other cochleosaurid types of temnospondyls have been found in North Pennsylvania (Berman et al 2010) and Linton Ohio.


The Pangaean Earth Poles


This equatorial line establishes the North Pole at the remote eastern peninsula of Russia, while the South Pole is centred around the Sudan border with Central African Republic/Chad.


So what was the coldest part on Pangaean Earth is now perhaps the hottest part of the World, the Sahara.


Palaeomagnetic Results confirm these Pole positions


When magma rises to the surface or near surface of the Earth during volcanism or intrusion, it eventually cools and crystallises. The dipoles become orientated in the direction of the magnetic field at that time. Like a magnetic tape on a tape recorder, the palaeo-magnetic field is recorded in the rock’s remanence (residual magnetism). Knowing the age of the rocks (through isotopic dating) we can use these magnetic orientations to determine the polar positions at that time.


The angle between the magnetic pole and the geographic pole is known as the angle of declination.



Many rocks have been analysed and their magnetic orientation recorded and so information is available for rocks of each geological period. The polarity of the poles reverses quite frequently and so the North pole quite often registers as being in the South.


Kainan Huang and N.D. Opdyke measured the remanent magnetic orientation of rocks in upper Carboniferous basaltic Woniusi Formation in Western Yunnan, China as being 209 degrees and confirmed readings by previous workers. This angle of declination is in agreement with the Pangaean model but puts the north pole, rather than the South pole at the Sudan/Chad border in Africa.



The  Carboniferous palaeo-equator and the present equator line intersect each other off the west coast of Africa at an angle of 85 degrees, putting them almost perpendicular to each other.




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