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The fossils of the early land plants


During the Carboniferous period which followed on from the Devonian, many coal beds were laid down. Coal is the fossil remains of land plants.


Coal beds indicate that swampy, humid conditions existed.


If we mark all the Carboniferous coal seams (354 -290 mya) found throughout the World on Pangaean Earth Model, they all lay within a narrow band which circles the Earth.


I have depicted this equatorial line on my Pangaean Earth Model as shown below. We can identify the Carboniferous coalfields along its length.























Starting from the bottom of the image above, coalfields can be found in the  Argentinian Andes at Santa Cruz, Patagonia.


There are coalfields on the Chilean coast at Isla Santa Maria and Arauco.



Continuing into the United States, there are vast coalfields in Mississippi and further north in Pennsylvania. In Canada, there are coal-fields in New Brunswick, Quebec State and Nova Scotia.


In north-west Spain, a coalfield is situated in the Picos de Europa area just south of coastal Gijon.



Fig. 61




The line continues through Russia’s Moscow Basin coalfield and along to Kazakhstan, the Kanaganda and Eki Bastuz coalfields before reaching Chinas’ Xinjiang Uyghur in its western region north of Tibet. Also in China is the Qaidim and Sichuan Basin and the Ghuizou area in the southern Yunnan Province where vast reserves of coal are to be found.


Fig. 62  


The carboniferous coal line passes into Cambodia where coalfields are found at Wang Khi, 150 km north of Ventiane. In Thailand carbonife





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