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The foundations of a Minoan town called Pavlopetri, which existed four thousand years ago off the coast of Greece, is now under 4 metres of water (Dr Jon Henderson, Univ. of Nottingham). Using the 0.0018 metres/year sea-level increase, the water level will have been 7.2 metres lower than it is today and the buildings will have been more than 2 metres above the water line.

 

The Black Sea

 

The Black Sea Deluge Theory (  1999) suggests that the Noah Flood story probably describes the great event when the Mediterranean burst through the Bosphorus, some 7600 years ago. To see if the Deluge Theory is consistent with a gradually increase of sea

level (18cm/ 100 years) we need to look at at the depth of the narrow opening of the Bosphorus, and any features which may suggest the level of the Black Sea has risen.

The Bosphorus is 18 metres deep in the Kadikoy Inciburnu region and is 13 metres at the Asiyan Point. The Mediterranean should have increased its level by 13.68 metres since that time. So it is feasible that the Mediterranean Sea level was just reaching the base of the Bosphorus Gorge 7600 years ago. Geologically, this gorge was formed around 350 million years ago when crustal stretching was starting to separate Turkey from Greece. The gorge itself is likely to be a gap in the sedimentary rock layer which has opened up as the basement rock stretched apart. The Sea of Marmara and the narrow Canakkale of the Dardanelles were likely formed at the same time and in fact the fault line extends northwards through the Black Sea to the narrow inlet of the Sea of Azov.

 

So it is likely that the gorge structure was already there and was not formed by the power of water pushing through it.

 

Fresh water will have existed in the Black Sea area before this event and this is because several rivers drain into the Black Sea. It was perhaps similar to the Caspian in its range. The Caspian Sea is 25 metres below sea level and has a much lower salinity level (30% of that of the Mediterranean).

 

Robert Ballard, an oceanographer and famous for his discovery of the Titanic wreck, has researched the waters of the Black Sea and confirmed that the water level has indeed increased considerably. He has discovered old mussel shells of species which are normally found in freshwater. He has also found at depths of metres, tool-worked timbers and man-made structures (probably from wattle-and-daub houses) and has had these carbon dated at 7500 years old.

 

Anton Preisinger and Selma Aslanian of the Technical University of Vienna, Austria have also carried out studies on the Black Sea Area, interpreting sea-level changes, salinity and climate during the past 20,000 years. They selected the Bay of Sozopol on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast to study these changes. According to their studies, 7500 years ago, this bay was not covered by sea water and a Neolithic settlement was established there. By 6000 years ago water had entered the bay creating a peninsula around the old volcano St Ivan. By 4500 years ago, this rock, and an adjacent one, was isolated as an island. By 3000 years ago the Thracians built a harbour mole, followed by the Greeks, 500 years later, who built another harbour mole and named the land Apollonia. 1500 years ago the Romans occupied this area. These remains are testament to a progressive increase in sea level and not just a one off inundation event. Kirik, another old volcano in the bay is now also an island. Their bathymetric maps of the area show that the Black Sea level has increased 20 metres in the last 7500.

 

So this suggests that the Black Sea has raised its level by 20 metres over a previous level, even though the Mediterranean has only raised its level 13-14 metres in the same period (7500 year).This would account for  a considerable inundation, initially, causing many areas of low lying land (peripheral areas of the Black Sea) to be submerged rapidly.

 

Other parts of the World.

 

Other studies have been carried out on sea level changes affecting coral reefs in many parts of the World. Coral reefs around old established volcanic islands need to maintain a certain minimum depth below the water surface for their sunlight requirements for photosynthesis. As the sea level gradually rises they ‘back-step’ onto higher ground nearer the land.

 

In Hawaii, corals have advanced 120 metres in 100,000 years (Faichrey, Webster et al). According to the average rate of sea level increase, discussed above, it should have raised by 180 metres in this time. Many factors can alter the rate of advance of the corals.

 

Off the coast of Belize, Central America, the unique ‘Blue Hole’ is a sunken karst structure with stalactites. Stalactites can only form in an open air environment and so a rising water level must have submerged them more recently. According to isotopic analysis, the most recent ones were formed about 15000 years ago. These are about 30 metres below the surface. If the annual sea-level rise is 0.0018 metres - the water level will have risen 27 metres.

 

In Papua New Guinea (Webster, Braga, et al) suggest that coral levels have risen 2-6 metres in the last 1000 years. Again, according to the average, it should be 1.8 metres.

 

 

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THE ACCUMULATION
OF WATER
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