The foundations of a Minoan town called Pavlopetri, which existed four thousand years
ago off the coast of Greece, is now under 4 metres of water (Dr Jon Henderson, Univ.
of Nottingham). Using the 0.0018 metres/year sea-level increase, the water level
will have been 7.2 metres lower than it is today and the buildings will have been
more than 2 metres above the water line.
The Black Sea
The Black Sea Deluge Theory ( 1999) suggests that the Noah Flood story probably
describes the great event when the Mediterranean burst through the Bosphorus, some
7600 years ago. To see if the Deluge Theory is consistent with a gradually increase
level (18cm/ 100 years) we need to look at at the depth of the narrow opening of
the Bosphorus, and any features which may suggest the level of the Black Sea has
The Bosphorus is 18 metres deep in the Kadikoy Inciburnu region and is 13 metres
at the Asiyan Point. The Mediterranean should have increased its level by 13.68 metres
since that time. So it is feasible that the Mediterranean Sea level was just reaching
the base of the Bosphorus Gorge 7600 years ago. Geologically, this gorge was formed
around 350 million years ago when crustal stretching was starting to separate Turkey
from Greece. The gorge itself is likely to be a gap in the sedimentary rock layer
which has opened up as the basement rock stretched apart. The Sea of Marmara and
the narrow Canakkale of the Dardanelles were likely formed at the same time and in
fact the fault line extends northwards through the Black Sea to the narrow inlet
of the Sea of Azov.
So it is likely that the gorge structure was already there and was not formed by
the power of water pushing through it.
Fresh water will have existed in the Black Sea area before this event and this is
because several rivers drain into the Black Sea. It was perhaps similar to the Caspian
in its range. The Caspian Sea is 25 metres below sea level and has a much lower salinity
level (30% of that of the Mediterranean).
Robert Ballard, an oceanographer and famous for his discovery of the Titanic wreck,
has researched the waters of the Black Sea and confirmed that the water level has
indeed increased considerably. He has discovered old mussel shells of species which
are normally found in freshwater. He has also found at depths of metres, tool-worked
timbers and man-made structures (probably from wattle-and-daub houses) and has had
these carbon dated at 7500 years old.
Anton Preisinger and Selma Aslanian of the Technical University of Vienna, Austria
have also carried out studies on the Black Sea Area, interpreting sea-level changes,
salinity and climate during the past 20,000 years. They selected the Bay of Sozopol
on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast to study these changes. According to their studies,
7500 years ago, this bay was not covered by sea water and a Neolithic settlement
was established there. By 6000 years ago water had entered the bay creating a peninsula
around the old volcano St Ivan. By 4500 years ago, this rock, and an adjacent one,
was isolated as an island. By 3000 years ago the Thracians built a harbour mole,
followed by the Greeks, 500 years later, who built another harbour mole and named
the land Apollonia. 1500 years ago the Romans occupied this area. These remains are
testament to a progressive increase in sea level and not just a one off inundation
event. Kirik, another old volcano in the bay is now also an island. Their bathymetric
maps of the area show that the Black Sea level has increased 20 metres in the last
So this suggests that the Black Sea has raised its level by 20 metres over a previous
level, even though the Mediterranean has only raised its level 13-14 metres in the
same period (7500 year).This would account for a considerable inundation, initially,
causing many areas of low lying land (peripheral areas of the Black Sea) to be submerged
Other parts of the World.
Other studies have been carried out on sea level changes affecting coral reefs in
many parts of the World. Coral reefs around old established volcanic islands need
to maintain a certain minimum depth below the water surface for their sunlight requirements
for photosynthesis. As the sea level gradually rises they ‘back-step’ onto higher
ground nearer the land.
In Hawaii, corals have advanced 120 metres in 100,000 years (Faichrey, Webster et
al). According to the average rate of sea level increase, discussed above, it should
have raised by 180 metres in this time. Many factors can alter the rate of advance
of the corals.
Off the coast of Belize, Central America, the unique ‘Blue Hole’ is a sunken karst
structure with stalactites. Stalactites can only form in an open air environment
and so a rising water level must have submerged them more recently. According to
isotopic analysis, the most recent ones were formed about 15000 years ago. These
are about 30 metres below the surface. If the annual sea-level rise is 0.0018 metres
- the water level will have risen 27 metres.
In Papua New Guinea (Webster, Braga, et al) suggest that coral levels have risen
2-6 metres in the last 1000 years. Again, according to the average, it should be