The Natural History Museum of Rotterdam exhibits many of the bones which have been
dredged up off the coast of Holland. These bones are from mammoths, bison, woolly
rhinoceros, Irish elk, and a scimitar-toothed cat which have been dated at around
28,000 years old.
Most exciting of all has been the retrieval of a piece of skull of a young Neanderthal
male which is considered to be 60,000 years old.
This figure of 0.0018 metres per year for sea level rise is consistent with other
observations of more recent artefacts. In year 40 AD, the Romans had a naval port
near Leiden in Holland. Named Lugdunum - but later known as Brittenburg, it consisted
of a small garrison station and a lighthouse.
The remains of the settlement were last seen in the 17th Century, at low tide. The
remains should still be there but will now be approximately 3.5 metres below sea
Denmark’s Limfjord was a freshwater channel cutting across northern Denmark until
when the North Sea’s water level finally reached that of the fjords’s outlet at Agger
Tange. This is confirmed by the species of fossil freshwater molluscs found in the
fjord’s substrata. The outlet at Agger Tange is about 1.5m deep and will be 36cm
deeper than it was nearly 200 years ago.
Antonioli et al (2007) review twelve sites in the Mediterranean (Sardinia and the
Adriatic Coast) where there are submerged archeological sites, mainly Roman in origin,
and have measured the equivalent of a sea level rise of the order of 1.6 metres.
From the figure discussed above, the predicted rise should be in the region of 3.6
metres since these times. However, because these workers are constrained by the theory
that the sea levels are only increased by meltwater from glaciers, they attach more
emphasis to the idea that the archeological remains have subsided into the sea as
a result of regional tectonic activity. Tectonic activity will have affected relative
sea/coast levels, it is true, but this will vary from situation to situation. There
are at least 25 sites around the Mediterranean coastline which have Roman (or previous)
archeological remains submerged by the sea by at least 1.5 metres. Some of these
buildings will have been at least 2 metres above the sea originally.
Land can subside, and there are examples of Roman ruins as deep as 7 metres in the
water. Bradyseism occurs in volcanic areas such as in the Bay of Naples, Italy, and
areas of land can be raised and then lowered again in time intervals of just a few
years. Bahia in the western Bay of Naples has subsided in this way and Roman ruins
are found at these depths. Caesarea, a port built by King Herod for Emperor Augustus
on the coast of Israel (70 km north of Tel Aviv) has also subsided - probably more
by regional tectonics than by Bradyseism - but increased sea levels, undoubtedly,
have caused some of the submergence.
Surely, an increase in sea-level is more elegantly explained by the production of
water by trillions of methanogens, than by melt from glaciers or by subsidence of
the local coast lines.
I estimate that 650 trillion litres of water are added to the Earth each year.
The small island of Ventotene, near Ischia in Italy, also shows proof of an increase
in sea level. The Romans were settled there and an elaborate series of piscinae ((fish
pools) were cut out of the solid rock. The walkways around the pools are now 1 metre
below the sea-level. If these pools were built 2000 years ago, the walkways will
have been 2.5 metres above sea level.
Submerged breakwaters of Roman age have been discovered in several areas of the Adriatic
Sea and are at least a metre below the surface of the water. Breakwaters are usually
built a metre above the maximum tide level. (San Giovanni de la Cometa). The Roman
pier at Porto Bussolo is also 1.2 to 1.8 metres below the sea level. (M.B. Carre,
At Cosa (Roman Portus Cosanus) on the modern day Tuscany coast, remains of ancient
walls and mosaic floors are visible along the beach (A.M. MCann 1987).
Salakta, (Roman Sullectum) on the Tunisian coast, has remains of Roman structures,
some are in the sea.
On the South coast of Turkey, a roman residential area existed at Simena. Here there
are numerous two storey buildings in the sea and their staircases descend into the
water. Sunken sarcophagi also exist and these date to pre-Roman times (Lycian settlement).