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The Natural History Museum of Rotterdam exhibits many of the bones which have been dredged up off the coast of Holland. These bones are from mammoths, bison, woolly rhinoceros, Irish elk, and a scimitar-toothed cat which have been dated at around 28,000 years old.


Most exciting of all has been the retrieval of a piece of skull of a young Neanderthal male which is considered to be 60,000 years old.


This figure of 0.0018 metres per year for sea level rise is consistent with other observations of more recent artefacts. In year 40 AD, the Romans had a naval port near Leiden in Holland. Named Lugdunum - but later known as Brittenburg, it consisted of a small garrison station and a lighthouse.


The remains of the settlement were last seen in the 17th Century, at low tide. The remains should still be there but will now be approximately 3.5 metres below sea level.


Denmark’s Limfjord was a freshwater channel cutting across northern Denmark until 1825

when the North Sea’s water level finally reached that of the fjords’s outlet at Agger Tange. This is confirmed by the species of fossil freshwater molluscs found in the fjord’s substrata. The outlet at Agger Tange is about 1.5m deep and will be 36cm deeper than it was nearly 200 years ago.


The Mediterranean


Antonioli et al (2007) review twelve sites in the Mediterranean (Sardinia and the Adriatic Coast) where there are submerged archeological sites, mainly Roman in origin, and have measured the equivalent of a sea level rise of the order of 1.6 metres. From the figure discussed above, the predicted rise should be in the region of 3.6 metres since these times. However, because these workers are constrained by the theory that the sea levels are only increased by meltwater from glaciers, they attach more emphasis to the idea that the archeological remains have subsided into the sea as a result of regional tectonic activity. Tectonic activity will have affected relative sea/coast levels, it is true, but this will vary from situation to situation. There are at least 25 sites around the Mediterranean coastline which have Roman (or previous) archeological remains submerged by the sea by at least 1.5 metres. Some of these buildings will have been at least 2 metres above the sea originally.


Land can subside, and there are examples of Roman ruins as deep as 7 metres in the water. Bradyseism occurs in volcanic areas such as in the Bay of Naples, Italy, and areas of land can be raised and then lowered again in time intervals of just a few years. Bahia in the western Bay of Naples has subsided in this way and Roman ruins are found at these depths. Caesarea, a port built by King Herod for  Emperor Augustus on the coast of Israel (70 km north of Tel Aviv) has also subsided - probably more by regional tectonics than by Bradyseism - but increased sea levels, undoubtedly, have caused some of the submergence.


Surely, an increase in sea-level is more elegantly explained by the production of water by trillions of methanogens, than by melt from glaciers or by subsidence of the local coast lines.


I estimate that 650 trillion litres of water are added to the Earth each year.



The small island of Ventotene, near Ischia in Italy, also shows proof of an increase in sea level. The Romans were settled there and an elaborate series of piscinae ((fish pools) were cut out of the solid rock. The walkways around the pools are now 1 metre below the sea-level. If these pools were built 2000 years ago, the walkways will have been 2.5 metres above sea level.


Submerged breakwaters of Roman age have been discovered in several areas of the Adriatic Sea and are at least a metre below the surface of the water. Breakwaters are usually built a metre above the maximum tide level. (San Giovanni de la Cometa). The Roman pier at Porto Bussolo is also 1.2 to 1.8 metres below the sea level. (M.B. Carre, V Kovacine).


At Cosa (Roman Portus Cosanus) on the modern day Tuscany coast, remains of ancient walls and mosaic floors are visible along the beach (A.M. MCann 1987).


Salakta, (Roman Sullectum) on the Tunisian coast, has remains of Roman structures, some are in the sea.


On the South coast of Turkey, a roman residential area existed at Simena. Here there are numerous two storey buildings in the sea and their staircases descend into the water. Sunken sarcophagi also exist and these date to pre-Roman times (Lycian settlement).




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