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So far we have discussed:


Pangaean Earth - when the Earth was about half its present diameter, roughly the size Mars is now, about 320 million years ago.


The Clam-shell Expansion - How the Earth grew from its Pangaean diameter to about 90% of its present diameter. This was a lop-sided enlargement and the extra surface area of the Earth was provided mainly by the growth of the Pacific Ocean-bed.


The Post Clam-shell expansion which mainly described the growth of new ocean-bed crust, on the other-side of the Earth, in the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean area.


How the Earth’s crust was progressively stretched, and in some parts, to failure point by hydrostatic forces from below.


The drift of the equatorial line through time as the Earth grew in size and how this dictated its distribution of plants and animals.



In the following chapters we will discuss:


A mechanism which could cause the Earth to stretch its ‘skin’ to bursting point and then allow a ‘new‘ skin to form.


What preceded Pangaean Earth.


What will happen to the Earth as it gets nearer and nearer the Sun.


Why has Earth so much water?



































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