Sometimes billions of these particle survive to ground level and can be detected
by instruments. Most of these are absorbed in the ground but some of the higher energy
ones at the centre of the shower can penetrate many kilometres into the crust. These
showers can cover an area of many square kilometres.
No studies have been carried out on the fate of these particles regarding their absorption
into the planet. However, Ostapenko Krasnoperov 2003, suggest associations between
neutron flux spikes with the onset of seismic processes. They observed that anomalously
high values of cosmic flux in an area have been followed by powerful earthquakes
within one hour time period and within a 450 km radius. This suggestion has been
supported by other workers such as Asatryan et al 1991, who record a thirty minute
interval between a 100% increase in cosmic radiation in the stratosphere over Erevan,
Armenia, and an earthquake in Spitak.
From this we may conclude that neutrons may be diffusing into rock structures and
displacing atoms into interstitial positions and thus altering the overall dimensions
of the rocks. Expanding silica networks within confined structures will generate
considerable pressures and earthquakes could be manifestations of these expansions.
Long term dating methods may not be reliable
Igneous rocks are currently being dated by the Rubidium-strontium method. Naturally
occurring Rubidium 87 decays to stable strontium 87 with a half life of 48.8 billion
years (Steiger and Jaeger 1977). The ratio between the amount of parent rubidium
to the amount of daughter strontium in a rock sample provides a useful natural clock
for measuring the passing of time in millions of years. This is because it is assumed
that when the molten lava solidifies the level of rubidium is fixed permanently.
However, if we consider that rubidium and strontium may be elements which have only
‘recently’ diffused into the planet, they should be present in much greater abundance
in rocks formed from more ‘recent’ lavas than ones formed from ancient lava material.
This is, in fact, true and this phenomenon was observed by Gunter Faure 2001 who
noted that ultramafic rocks (except anorthosites) have very low concentrations of
rubidium and strontium compared to mafic rocks such as gabbro and diorite or felsic
rocks like monzonite or granite).
If the planet did form in the way it is popularly conceived, there should still be
an abundance of rubidium in the most ancient of rocks because the decay rate of rubidium
is so slow. The ultramafic rocks of 2 billion years of age should still have 96%
of their original rubidium level and only 4% of it should have decayed to strontium.
Scientists have proposed a series of bizarre explanations for these anomalies in
ancient rocks - but my theory of Planetary Metamorphosis offers a simple explanation.
As our Earth may have only entered the heavy ion zone in the last 200 millions years,
the presence of small quantities of rubidium and strontium ions in some of the older
rocks may be solely due to recent ion diffusion and displacement of pre-existing
ions. For example, rubidium easily substitutes for potassium. Both of these elements
are mobile in hydrothermal solutions.
Chapman S, Ferraro V. C. A.
Nuevonen K.J. The heat of formation of Merwinite and Monticellite. http//earth.geology.yale.edu/
Boolchand P, Bresser W.J. Mobile silver ons and glass formation in solid electrolytes,
Dept Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Cincinnati.
Kaneko T, dilation of glass by field assisted ion exchange, Journal of Material Science
Letters 5 (1986) 1010-11-12.
Leeds University, Department of Astrophysics. www.ast.leeds.ac.uk
Ostapenko V.F, and Krasnoperov V.A., Analysis of natural neutron flux in a seismically
active zone. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (2003) 3 777-780.
Asatryan G. A., Asatryan Gr. A, Babayan, V.H, Stozhkov Y, and Oganyan G. Zh., Proc.
AC USSR, Ser Physics, V55 No. 10 pp 1979-81, 1991.
Steiger And Jaegar 1977 Subcommission on Geochronology: Convention on the use of
decay constants in geo and cosmochronology. Earth Planet Science. Letters 36:359-362.
Faure G. Origin of Igneous Rocks. Springer Edition 2001.