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If Pangaean Earth really existed as my model describes and each continent was joined to the next in patchwork fashion with symmetry of geology between them, then only an expansion or growth of the Earth could have brought it to the present day continental configuration.



For this reason the current hypothesis on the random drifting of continents, where it is said they sometimes collide with each other to form super-continents and then later split up into smaller fragments, cannot be correct.


Too much emphasis has been put on the observed phenomenon of sub-duction. It must be realised that ocean-bed formation can take place freely for hundreds of millions of years before its crust may be forced to sub-duct. The Pacific Ocean bed, for example, provided half the Earth’s surface area and some of its crust is now 200 million years old. This crust is now sub-ducting at trenches all around its periphery and has likely being doing so for at least 100 million years - but the surrounding continents started to break up about 300 million years ago.


On a continuous sized Earth, the Pacific Ocean bed could have only formed if an ocean bed of equivalent size had previously existed in the Mediterranean area, and had been progressively consumed by sub-duction. There is no evidence of this massive ocean-bed space between the Euro-Asian and African plates. Crust Mohos suggest that the Mediterranean area has simply evolved from strain between the African and Euro-asian continental crust system.


The relationship between the surface area of a sphere, S, and its radius r is given by:-





If we predict that most of the newer surface area gained by an expanding Earth is defined by the ocean-bed crust, we can match this figure of surface area with that we would expect from an Earth nearly doubling its radius. My model describes Pangaean Earth’s radius as 53% of the Earth’s present radius.


An estimate of the surface areas of oceans and seas is given by Wikipedia as being


                                                                                                    3.6 x 10 ^8 km 2



The surface area of Earth now is                4 x 3.142 x 6378 x 6378  =  5.1 x 10 ^8 km 2


The surface area of Pangaean Earth was     4 x 3.142 x 3380 x 3380  =  1.4 x  10^8 km 2


                                                                  The difference is.....      3.7 x 10 ^8 km 2


This figure is remarkably close to the figure quoted by Wikipedia for the surface area of the oceans. The discrepancy is less than 3%.



If the radius has increased from 3380 km to 6378 km over the 330 million years the average


Radius increase per year is 0.908 cm


So if we recognise that the Earths’s diameter is increasing yearly by nearly 2 cm, this means that the planet must be adding mass. However, mass is not being added to the outer surface of the planet to produce layers of growth like the layers of an onion, somehow it is being added below the crust, causing a hydrostatic pressure to build up which regularly releases itself by straining the crust and/or perforating it (by volcanism). This is apparent from the way the ‘skin’ of the Earth has behaved during this period - and in previous chapters I have described how the crust varies in thickness, depending upon how much strain had taken place.


Current theory suggests that the Solar system came into being some five billion years ago and that the planets, since that time, have been cooling down. This notion does not explain why volcanism still persists with such vigour. If  this theory was correct, after nearly five billion years, surely the Earth’s entropy level would be very low, there would be no tectonic activity, no high temperatures in the mantle and no tremendous forces capable of deforming rocks.


Current theories suggest also that tectonic forces are driven by ‘convection currents’. Convection currents are weak forces and are by nature de-compressional; so it is hardly likely that they could cause such powerful effects.




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