If Pangaean Earth really existed as my model describes and each continent was joined
to the next in patchwork fashion with symmetry of geology between them, then only
an expansion or growth of the Earth could have brought it to the present day continental
For this reason the current hypothesis on the random drifting of continents, where
it is said they sometimes collide with each other to form super-continents and then
later split up into smaller fragments, cannot be correct.
Too much emphasis has been put on the observed phenomenon of sub-duction. It must
be realised that ocean-bed formation can take place freely for hundreds of millions
of years before its crust may be forced to sub-duct. The Pacific Ocean bed, for example,
provided half the Earth’s surface area and some of its crust is now 200 million years
old. This crust is now sub-ducting at trenches all around its periphery and has likely
being doing so for at least 100 million years - but the surrounding continents started
to break up about 300 millionyears ago.
On a continuous sized Earth, the Pacific Ocean bed could have only formed if an ocean
bed of equivalent size had previously existed in the Mediterranean area, and had
been progressively consumed by sub-duction. There is no evidence of this massive
ocean-bed space between the Euro-Asian and African plates. Crust Mohos suggest that
the Mediterranean area has simply evolved from strain between the African and Euro-asian
continental crust system.
The relationship between the surface area of a sphere, S, and its radius r is given
If we predict that most of the newer surface area gained by an expanding Earth is
defined by the ocean-bed crust, we can match this figure of surface area with that
we would expect from an Earth nearly doubling its radius. My model describes Pangaean
Earth’s radius as 53% of the Earth’s present radius.
An estimate of the surface areas of oceans and seas is given by Wikipedia as being
x 10 ^8 km 2
The surface area of Earth now is 4 x 3.142 x 6378 x 6378 = 5.1 x
10 ^8 km 2
The surface area of Pangaean Earth was 4 x 3.142 x 3380 x 3380 = 1.4 x 10^8km 2
is..... 3.7 x 10 ^8km 2
This figure is remarkably close to the figure quoted by Wikipedia for the surface
area of the oceans. The discrepancy is less than 3%.
If the radius has increased from 3380 km to 6378 km over the 330 million years the
Radius increase per year is 0.908 cm
So if we recognise that the Earths’s diameter is increasing yearly by nearly 2 cm,
this means that the planet must be adding mass. However, mass is not being added
to the outer surface of the planet to produce layers of growth like the layers of
an onion, somehow it is being added below the crust, causing a hydrostatic pressure
to build up which regularly releases itself by straining the crust and/or perforating
it (by volcanism). This is apparent from the way the ‘skin’ of the Earth has behaved
during this period - and in previous chapters I have described how the crust varies
in thickness, depending upon how much strain had taken place.
Current theory suggests that the Solar system came into being some five billion years
ago and that the planets, since that time, have been cooling down. This notion does
not explain why volcanism still persists with such vigour. If this theory was correct,
after nearly five billion years, surely the Earth’s entropy level would be very low,
there would be no tectonic activity, no high temperatures in the mantle and no tremendous
forces capable of deforming rocks.
Current theories suggest also that tectonic forces are driven by ‘convection currents’.
Convection currents are weak forces and are by nature de-compressional; so it is
hardly likely that they could cause such powerful effects.