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As the following diagram shows, India was on the north side of the vector ‘cross-wires’ whereas Australia was on the south east of them at the time they both moved away from their Gondwanan positions next to Africa.






























The Indian Ocean bed was built from a ridge line which stretches southwards from the Horn of Africa to a point in line with north Madagascar (the Carlsberg Ridge) and from here to a point in line with the tip of South Africa (the Central Indian Ridge) and then continues from here eastwards until it links up with the East Pacific Ridge at a point south of New Zealand. This latter section is known as the South-east Indian Ridge. The relative development of new ocean bed crust at all of these ridges has determined India’s and Australia’s movement to their current positions. These ridge developments are in themselves manifestations of the clam-shell opening effect which hinges on the Mediterranean area.


Although Australia was never in contact with Antarctica, at one time it was much closer. The two continents have moved away from each other by crust development at the South east Indian Ridge. Consequently there are some banded magnetic anomalies between these two continents and this has confused us into thinking that they were once joined.


Crust development is predominantly away from each side of the ridge but multilateral development occurs also. This means the ridges increase their length as the Earth’s surface gets greater. This is evident around the rim of the Pacific plate where sub-duction occurs on all sides. There are trenches where sub-duction is taking place in the north (near Japan and Alaska) and the east (the Peru Chile trench). The western Pacific plate sub-ducts under the newer Indian plate.




Convection Currents do not drive mid-ocean ridge formation


Multilateral ocean bed growth can only take place on an expanding Earth.


The current notion of ridge growth by convection currents in the upper mantle is absurd. Where would such powerful currents originate? Convection currents are de-compressive as they move from hotter to cooler temperatures and as such are weak by nature. Convection currents are random and un-predictable, reacting to local temperature gradients which vary over time.


Hydrostatic conditions underneath the crust, (caused by an expanding mantle) however, are extremely powerful and are the more likely cause of this phenomenon.They seek out weak points and continuously act on them in a predictable way.


We know that liquids resist compression and we exploit this fact in hydraulic engineering in the design of powerful lifting equipment. We also have to ensure that butane cylinders are filled to no more than 90% of their capacity - to allow for expansion of the liquefied gas if the ambient temperature increases. A cylinder filled to maximum capacity and subjected to heat could create an hydrostatic pressure high enough to burst it. Some butane cylinders are fitted with relief valves to safely reduce hydrostatic pressures should they arise.



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