©A.D. MACKAY        



This research shows that our planet was not created in a single event but likely evolved through gaseous stages similar to the gas planets in our Solar System. Our Earth may have emerged as a tiny rocky sphere from the centre of a Jupiter-like planet which was losing its hydrogen and helium envelope.


It suggests that all planets gradually get pulled closer and closer to the central body (in our case - the Sun) and eventually get destroyed, or fired off into space, by the effects of a gravitational tide.


This study suggests that planets add mass and continue to grow in size by the diffusion of energetic ions at the polar areas; negatively charged ones at the aurora borealis and positively charged ones at the aurora australis. These ions penetrate the crust at these points and diffuse through the mantle area where they lose energy and eventually combine to form compounds. In doing so - they produce an exothermic heat of formation. It is likely that the accumulative effect of this heat is responsible for the maintenance of high temperatures within the mantle and the hydrostatic pressures which continually increase to regularly power volcanic activity, tectonics and crustal strain.


By this process our planet may have increased its size considerably from a humble beginning, perhaps the size of Ceres, the planetesimal between Mars and Jupiter.


My first small Earth Model was to determine the definitive positioning of the continents of a globe map - if they were all removed and pasted onto a smaller diameter sphere in such a way as to fit together as a mosaic. Much trial and error was involved in this but it led to a 50% diameter model - which describes the Super-continent Pangaea as the entire integument of a smaller Earth.


Where two given continents were originally attached to each other, on a suture, a symmetry of geology and topography between them is clearly evident.  

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The positions of the Earth’s landmasses, relative to each other on a smaller sphere are given in detail. The geology and geography which confirms this definitive model is documented. The model resolves the true positions of Australia and Antarctica within Gondwana.


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Image NASA
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Mechanisms of evolution


Lemurs, monkeys and apes - just

an arbitrary grouping of tree-dwelling mammals?


The evolution of monotremes from birds.


Savannah apes and the evolution of mankind



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• Planetary Metamorphosis in general

Pangaea as a small Earth

• Palaeo-equators relative to coal-fields and dinosaurs

• The Accumulation of Water on Earth

• The Earth’s Clam-shell Expansion

• Planetary Decay and Destruction

This is an ongoing Internet research project covering the topics listed below. Pertinent data will be added to this research work on a regular basis.



A new perspective on the origin and evolution of our planet

• A Mechanism for Planetary Growth

Andrew D Mackay

• Post Clam-shell Expansion

• Evolution of the Earth’s crust

• Basin formation, magma intrusion

• Models of Smaller Earths

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• Methanogens and Water accumulation

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